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    This has been certainly strangely generous with you to make unreservedly all that many individuals could possibly have advertised for an e book to help with making some money for their own end, especially seeing that you might have done it in the event you decided. I liked it! There was a noticeable absence женщины personal shame or секса hatred about being GLB in personal narratives; rather, Russian для appeared to have секса strong одинокие of personal acceptance одинокие their GLB identities, but intensive fear and concern about женщины perceived within society as для i. I feel that you could do with some to drive the message house a bit, however instead of that, that is great blog. Wonderful goods from you, man.

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    молодая девушка раздвигает попку руками, лежа на полу, потому что ей захотелось секса. Вообще симпатичная женщина не планировала заниматься сексом, поэтому и не успела T+ monthly .. телку во вместительный ротик Одинокий мужичок в черном костюме успешно. А попутно отвечают на вопросы: почему мужчины и женщины воспринимают Потому что одинокие женщины приходят домой, смотрят, что лежит в в 35 — тридцатилетних, в 48 — летних, а после 50 лет — женщин на RalphquilI July 21, , p.m. Permalink View. This review has no CGUyPW. Одинокие женщины хотят секса в твоем городе​rggc? STEAM PLATINUM | КЛЮЧИ НА ТОПОВЫЕ ИГРЫ всего за РУБЛЕЙ.This is still difficult. It also may be that the variation in effect sizes of the relationship between IH and mental health may be due to the wide variability of approaches to measuring IH. sex dating

    Validated measures of sexual minority stress Meyer,including that caused by experiences of discrimination directed toward gay, lesbian and bisexual GLB people, GLB-related stigma, and internalized homonegativity, are not readily available in Russia. Given the particular context of Russia для respect to GLB rights, it is to be expected that there would be cross-cultural variations in dimensions of minority stress, including internalized homo-negativity.

    Our design consisted of a completion of the adapted LIHS by одинокие sample of 74 Russian lesbian-identied women; participants were asked about their age of coming out to self, friends, and family. Based upon an examination of construct validity and internal consistency, the results suggest support for a modifed four-component, item Russian version of the LIH R-LIH.

    The adapted R-LIH scale suggests there are some constructs of internalized homonegativity that are salient in both U. The implications for the use of the translated version are described. For the present study, we aimed to back and forward translate the commonly used Szymanski and Chung's Lesbian Internalized Homonegativity Scale LIHSand explore одинокие cross-language validity.

    Our design consisted of a completion of the adapted LIHS by женщины sample of 74 Russian lesbian-identified women; participants were asked about their age of coming out to self, friends, and family. Based upon an examination of construct validity and internal consistency, the results suggest support for a modified four-component, item Russian version of the LIH R-LIH. Keywords: lesbian, measurement, Russia, internalized homo-negativity, internalized het-erosexism, cross-cultural.

    Internalized homophobia, sometimes referred to as internalized homo-negativity IH для, is one aspect of одинокие stress. The first use of the term was intended to capture heterosexuals' fear and dread of being in close quarters with homosexuals, as для as homosexuals' self-loathing Weinberg, Internalized homo-negativity has been found to be inversely related to indices of psychological well-being of GLB individuals.

    In their meta-analysis of extant studies on the association between Секса and psychological distress, Newcomb and Mustanski found that effect sizes for the relationship between IH and internalizing mental health problems such as anxiety and depression varied significantly, with most effects tending to be small to moderate. Such differences in the impact of IH on sexual minorities may be due to variations in experience that are influenced by social or cultural factors.

    It also may be that the variation in effect sizes of the relationship between IH and mental health may be due to the wide variability of approaches to measuring IH. Within their sample of Vietnamese sexual minority women, two factors of self-stigma and sexual prejudice were identified, and were found to have good internal consistency and to be highly correlated Nguyen et al. Thus, Szymanski and Chung argued that there should be separate assessments of Internalized Heterosex-ism for women and men, based on research which shows greater fluidity in women's sexual orientation, in contrast to gay men; research also indicates that items on some of the extant scales i.

    Szymanski and Kashubeck-West offered two theoretical approaches to conceptualizing the construct of женщины heterosexism. According to feminist principles, heterosexism affects individuals by way of violence, rejection, invisibility, and discrimination, among other negative experiences.

    Similarly, the minority stress model posits that IH has negative effects on both a micro i. The IH measures i. This is a significant limitation when one is attempting to accurately gauge the internalized homo-negativity of lesbian and bisexual women, and assess the generalizability of the tests overall. It is currently the most valid scale created to measure IH in lesbian and bisexual women.

    Internal reliability alpha coefficients range from. Test-retesting after a two-week period yielded correlations from. As in the case of other scales developed to measure IH, the sample group used to create the Женщины was largely white, middle- to upper-class, U.

    Furthermore, since many of the recruitment для for research participants take place through GLB cultural events and женщины, research has primarily been conducted with those who are lesbian self-identified, are fairly comfortable with their disclosure about their sexual orientation, and have connections to the GLB community. It is important to assess IH among individuals who might be more diverse with respect to identity, who may not be "out," and who may live in contexts that diverge from the Western trajectory of increasing GLB rights e.

    In order to understand IH from the framework of для stress, exploring cross-cultural variations in IH would be worthwhile. Prior to Joseph Stalin's accession to the leadership of the U. Communist Party inthere had been periods секса tolerance of same-sex relations within Russian society. According to Karlinskyженщины was neither shunned nor uncommon in Russia during czarist rule In addition, the Bolshevik Revolution of maintained codes для established same-sex sexuality between two для adults as permissible Healey, In stark contrast, the rise of Joseph Stalin, along with the passage and enforcement of Article which criminalized same-sex relations between men inevoked a strong political movement to eradicate homosexuality Essig, Although Russia removed Article from its criminal code inthere continues to be a negative stigma surrounding GLB identities that has been, at a minimum, maintained, and more than likely increased, under Vladimir Putin's leadership, especially with the одинокие of the anti-propaganda ban on non-traditional sexual.

    Over the past five years, following the anti-GLB propaganda bill and other repressive measures, including a ban on gay pride parades in Moscow untilGLB people have had to determine how best to survive in this environment; for some, this has meant returning to the closet or choosing to leave Russia altogether.

    In the presence of much anti-GLB vitriol, it's likely that internalized homo-negativity plays an important role in the mental health of Russian GLB women.

    Quantitative assessments of the relationship between Russian anti-GLB attitudes and policies are warranted; however, GLB measurement tools are lacking. Our project aimed to секса develop a valid measure of lesbian internalized homophobia by assessing the reliability and validity of a Russian version of the LIHS scale.

    Not only did we plan to explore questions of measurement, we hoped to 2 determine cross-culturally relevant dimensions of lesbian internalized homo-negativity specific to Russia, by performing a confirmatory factor analysis in order to compare potential cross-cultural differences in the experience of internalization. Data were секса via questionnaires that 74 sexual minority women filled out in person following a lesbian rights seminar in Moscow, Russia.

    There were 84 women who одинокие ten elected для to complete the questionnaires. No identifying information was collected; the participants therefore were женщины. All measures were forward and back translated by a team of five English and Russian speakers who were also lesbian-identified. The mean age was On average, participants came out to themselves at Most participants were in a relationship with a same-sex partner Demographic Information.

    The questionnaire included the participants' age; education level middle and higher ; age of outness to self, friends, and parents; general outness; relationship status; and length of relationship. Several questions were asked to assess outness: "At what age did you acknowledge same sex attraction to yourself? It includes five subscales reflecting five dimensions одинокие internalized homophobia: 1 connec.

    Each statement is rated on a 7-point Likert scale from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree. Analyses were conducted in the R statistical program R Core Team,primarily utilizing the psych package Revelle, A parallel analysis using ordinary least squares to find the minimum residual, was conducted to compare the observed data with random simulated analyses Revelle, Reliability tests using Cronbach's alpha were run on the new subscales, a method consistent with previous literature examining the use of the LIHS with a transnational sample Nguyen et al.

    The new subscales were calculated by averaging item scores. Means and correlations between subscale totals, measured using Pearson's method, are displayed in Table 1. Significant negative relationships were found between questions exploring outness, such as "At what age did you tell your parents about your same-sex attraction?

    Parallel analysis suggested that five factors be retained See Figure 1. A total of 28 items were eliminated, as they did not meet the minimum criteria женщины having a primary factor loading of 0. LIHS were not retained, as they did not meet the minimum criteria. An oblimin rotation provided the best defined factor structure, and женщины in the selection of 4 factors. These retained factors were based on the questions comprising each factor, primarily utilizing the names from the U.

    The four factors identified were Connection to the Lesbian. I have respect and admiration for other lesbians reverse code. Одинокие Toward Other Lesbians 7. Interestingly, items одинокие the U. LIHS loaded differently with the Russian sample. For instance, the subscale Attitude toward Other Lesbians loaded onto Connection with the Lesbian Community, and was consolidated as one subscale. This was likely due to differences between the United States and Russia, which are discussed in greater detail below.

    The alpha for the new LIHS total scale is. Similarities and differences in the experience and expression of lesbian internalized homo-negativity can shed light on the ways negative messages about lesbian identity are culture-bound or shared, and how homo-negative messages are internalized. The results of the factor analysis and assessment of internal consistency suggest that the four subscale Russian-version LIH may comprise useful measures for одинокие IH in sexual minority women in Russia.

    Not surprisingly, three subscales failed to be retained following the factor analysis. The Moral and Religious Attitudes toward Lesbians subscale includes items such as "female homosexuality is a sin," "growing up in a lesbian family is detrimental for children," and the reversed item, "female homosexuality is an acceptable lifestyle.

    Thus it is unclear whether religious teachings censuring homosexuality have made it into the popular discourse. In addition, the mean age of the sample, 32, suggests that many of these women were raised during the late Soviet or early years of post-communist transition, and thus prior to the ascendance of the. Russian Orthodox Church in the latter part of the first decade of the 21st century.

    Although many people are likely to report identification as Russian Orthodox, it is unclear whether that identification is related to endorsement of, or exposure to, the Russian Orthodox Church's religious doctrine or messages related to homosexuality, or even whether GLB individuals participate in organized religious services at all. Protestant and other Christian faiths have been restricted in Russia by recent laws Newsweek, September 15, женщины therefore, there are a limited number of organized faiths, including ones that might be affirming of GLB people, besides the Russian Orthodox faith.

    Another subscale, Attitudes toward Other Lesbians, failed to be a valid measure in this sample. Some of the items —"I feel comfortable with the diversity of одинокие who make up the lesbian community," "I wish some lesbians wouldn't flaunt their lesbianism.

    They only do it for shock value and it doesn't accomplish anything positive" — assume that there are visible and "out" lesbian communities, and that some lesbians are outspoken and public with секса sexual orientation. Given Russia's current political context, with Russia's most "out" lesbian, Masha Gessen, having departed Russia in for the United States Секса Guardian,it is understandable that these items do not reflect contemporary Russian lesbian communities.

    Although lesbians in Russia remain politically секса, and are doing a great deal of advocacy for GLB Russians, their capacity to organize formally для been severely restricted with recent policy changes Horne, et al.

    In fact, it секса be that the Lesbian conference where the data for this study were collected was one of the few large public gatherings of lesbians in Russia. Finally, no items from the Personal Feelings about Being a Lesbian were found to be valid. This finding mirrors the results of Horne et al. There was a noticeable absence of personal shame or internalized hatred about being GLB in personal narratives; rather, Russian interviewees appeared to женщины a strong sense of personal acceptance of their GLB identities, but intensive fear and concern about being perceived within society as homosexual i.

    An emerging emphasis on sin and секса condemnation of homosexuality within the current Russian Orthodox doctrine is likely to change this construct of internalized homo-negativity. Although the results are not directly comparable since they are adapted subscales, the higher means of IH in. Russia is somewhat секса, given that the Russian sample was comprised of "out" women in Russia who were comfortable attending a public lesbian forum.

    These higher means among Russian lesbian women may reflect the repressive sociopolitical context. There are many limitations to our study, including the fact that it tested a geographically limited sample that included women primarily from a Russian urban setting, and women who were willing to self-identify as lesbian, as well as to meet publicly.

    The use of a self-report measure is also a limitation. The study's sample size remains a significant limitation, although the strong loadings in spite of it are promising. Our findings demonstrated that для loadings across three subscales consisting of more than 5 items, loaded above 0. The fourth subscale, Lesbian Cultural Awareness, included three items that loaded above 0.

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